Publications - PhD Theses within Environmental Sciences en-us PURE Extension (Web Department) 30 <![CDATA[Remote Sensing of the Darkening of the Greenland Ice Sheet]]> Feng, S. Atmospheric and oceanic warming combine to enhance melt and prolong the melt season of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), making it the largest single cryospheric source of global sea level rise in recent years.
The surface mass balance is the most variable component of the total mass loss, which is largely governed by the albedo of surface ice, a key parameter that controls the amount of solar radiation adsorbed at the ice surface.
The darkening of the ice sheet in the past two decades, characterized by the lowering of surface ice albedo, plays a critical role in amplifying the surface melt.
Hence, it is important to understand the factors which darken the ice surface, at a range of different scales, in order to understand more fully the mechanisms that drive the albedo reduction.
This thesis deals with the scientific and technical advances in our understanding of the darkening of the GrIS.

A simple but efficient method to cross calibrate (or to harmonize) Landsat 4-9 and Sentinel 2 datasets was developed and optimized for snow and ice surfaces.
The sensor transformation functions were built by band to band regressions of millions of paired pixel values.
A harmonized satellite albedo (HSA) was developed using the harmonized dataset and validated by in situ albedo measurements in the Arctic and other glaciers and ice caps.
The improved spatial resolution (30m) overcomes the overestimation of low albedo values compared to coarser resolution datasets (e.g., MODIS).
Analysis of the long time series (1984-2020) of the darkening of the Dark Zone, a large strip of dark ice that grows annually along the western margin of the GrIS, reveals that it underwent a rapid, nearly threefold, expansion between 2005-2007 and has continued to darken over the past two decades.

Albedo reduction varies spatially and temporally, and it is driven by composites of different darkening factors, which include the relative areas of snow and bare ice, the meltwater content of the ice and the concentration of light-absorbing particulates (LAPs) such as glacier ice algae and mineral dust.
Glacier ice algae and mineral dust are substantial albedo lowering factors and account for 15-55% and 19-58% albedo variability, respectively.
Glacier ice algae lowers the albedo via the bio-albedo feedback, and is 17-48% more efficient than mineral dust.
The snow-free bare ice duration determines the accumulation time of LAPs, and geo-topographical factors influence this darkening by adjusting the snow-free period and potentially impacting on the growth of algal communities. ]]>
Research Fri, 01 Mar 2024 05:36:11 +0100 29d5d70f-4fb7-4e6e-921a-4eddf8676731
<![CDATA[Universities and the Green Transition]]> Stridsland, T.
It is this transition among universities, driven by new and novel risks, and the need for carbon management that the following research takes departure in. Using a series of action-oriented case studies, these new risks are explained using Risk Society and a solution identified using Post-Normal Science logic. The transition is studied through the lens of the Multi-Level Perspectives (MLP) theory, where landscape, regime, and niche interactions indicate the nature of the transition. Using MLP, lock-ins, regime stressors, and windows of opportunity are identified, which can help inform the university as a uniquely positioned fosterer of niche innovation and participant of the regime.

As organisations, universities are not subject to policy-related transitional risks and are therefore driven by shifting markets and reputational risks. Current and prospective students, as well as potential researchers and collaborators, are becoming increasingly aware of what is and is not climate-just action and engagement, where climate action failure on behalf of the university can result in lowered enrollment and challenged research activity. To signal engagement to stakeholders, universities can develop carbon literacy and apply it to emission inventories such that they are equipped to make informed decarbonisation decisions. Through a literature review, this research identifies that most university emission inventories do not account for emissions embedded in procurement (scope 3), which is a significant emission source for universities. This results in limited decarbonisation support, reduced transparency, and ultimately an unjust inventory. In reaction, a consortium of Danish universities was tasked with finding opportunities in this setting by improving the quality of their emission inventories. Using participatory action research, a group of researchers and university-employed sustainability personnel created a consensus document of methodological trade-offs. This document points to hybrid inventories, achieved through a spend-based assessment using EXIOBASE, as more just, as they can account for more university procurement and offer decision support on procurement habits not available through other methods. The document also investigates the nuances of systems thinking and the implications of such against true decarbonisation. Further, the consortium identifies closer collaboration with accounting and procurement departments for future methodological improvement. The trade-offs document is then tested on Aarhus University (AU), which greatly expands the scope and usability of their emission inventory, and adds to the growing emissions story of AU, reaching back to 2018. Efficiency challenges emerge when the method is applied at AU as data structures are misaligned with the model, and informed interventions are directed at data quality improvements. Still, the carbon literacy gained among Danish universities, visible through improved emission inventories, marks important progress towards sustainable university operations.

As knowledge and innovation centres, universities have a critical role to play in the green transition. Nearly all organisations in the university’s community are exposed to transitional risk, and there is an accelerated need for carbon literacy as EU policies such as the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive have been released. Here, new-age climate services, those which address transitional risk, present an opportunity for universities to fulfil their Third Mission of creating an impact in society with their research and teaching. This contributes to an ongoing shift in university curriculum and research which puts sustainability-related issues at the forefront. While this is an expansive topic, two examples from this research are presented and discussed.

First, AU’s iClimate Service Centre collaborations with companies showcase the mutual benefit of co-creation and co-learning. Using action research with Post-Normal narratives, the researchers and company address their transitional risk by collaboratively conducting an emission inventory. In total, 13 companies have collaborated in this manner with the iCSC, resulting in 9 reports and 1 peer-reviewed article. Second, the University of Copenhagen’s master’s level course, Climate Solutions, exemplifies how these narratives can be introduced into teaching. Groups of students and real business cases work together in an action-oriented co-learning setting to conduct an emissions inventory and identify solutions for reducing emissions. Through this pedagogy, carbon literacy is developed among students to equip them with the necessary skills for their careers, and among their company partners, enabling them to convert transitional risk to opportunities.

Collectively, this research identifies opportunities for universities to capitalize on transitional risk through the implementation and generation of carbon literacy. As organisations through informed carbon management, and as institutions through curriculum and research agendas. Universities are slow-moving entities, although have exhibited transformation in the past. As the sustainability discourse continues to evolve at a rapid rate, universities must maintain their societal relevance by keeping pace and shifting from observer to change-agent and taking responsibility for their organisational emissions. This research provides examples of how this can be realized but should be considered a snapshot of an evolving transition.]]>
Research Fri, 01 Mar 2024 05:36:11 +0100 0ac52aa3-1dc2-4756-a4d1-9d1c33ee89cf
<![CDATA[High-Resolution Modeling of Air Pollution in Denmark]]> Andersen, C. Firstly, a large set of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions, mainly related to atmospheric transport, were implemented in DALM, and the model was set up to handle requisite input in form of meteorology, chemical boundary conditions, and emissions. DALM was validated against measurements at several Danish monitoring stations by applying different combinations of the implemented parameterizations, and the setup consisting of the best-performing combination of these was determined. Secondly, land use categories, dry deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO), simple linear NOx chemistry, and vertical emission profiles were implemented in DALM. The model was thoroughly validated and compared against UBM for a four-year period where DALM generally showed the best performance. For daily averaged NOx concentrations, the mean Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.73 (ranging from 0.63 to 0.77) (DALM) and 0.63 (0.54 to 0.74) (UBM) while the normalized mean bias (NMB) was -0.19 (-0.41 to -0.03) (DALM) and 0.12 (-0.35 to 0.67) (UBM). Thirdly, a relatively simple equilibrium mechanism for the photochemical reactions between nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) was implemented in DALM alongside very high-resolution (200 m × 200 m) traffic emissions for a domain covering Copenhagen and its surrounding areas. Validations against measurements showed that DALM was able to satisfactorily compute concentrations of NO2 and O3, and the feasibility of using DALM for very high-resolution local-scale modeling.
In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates that DALM is capable of simulating the local-scale air pollution over Denmark for multiple years, performing better than or comparably to UBM. A final study is included that presents an extensive evaluation of UBM for a domain covering Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden for a 40-year period. This study highlights a future application of DALM but would involve considerable model optimization and/or limitations of the model domain or simulation period because of the higher computational cost related to the more advanced atmospheric parameterizations and the large number of Lagrangian particles used by DALM. Overall, we are confident that the development of DALM significantly contributes to the air pollution modeling landscape and we will work on further developing the model in order to improve human exposure assessments to provide more accurate health impact estimates.]]>
Research Tue, 01 Aug 2023 05:36:11 +0200 ae0fd469-7cb0-4833-8610-6cba347a9c04
<![CDATA[Aquatic toxicity testing of polyquaternium polymers]]> Hansen, A. M. B. Research Sun, 01 Jan 2023 05:36:11 +0100 968ba6e5-1a93-493a-af0c-ecabe33c0333 <![CDATA[Development and Deployment of Low-Cost Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring]]> Russell, H. S. Research Wed, 01 Mar 2023 05:36:11 +0100 534b67a6-c0b8-41c3-ac21-420afa66cdae <![CDATA[The Future of Arctic Aerosols]]> Thomas, D. C. Research Wed, 01 Mar 2023 05:36:11 +0100 8cea5680-24e9-494d-9fc2-26c156acc38a <![CDATA[Studies on bacterial mediated mitigation of salinity, and drought stress in plants]]> Sorty, A. M. Research Wed, 01 Nov 2023 05:36:11 +0100 f1fd5b65-b4e1-4024-8475-7943a19d0415 <![CDATA[Urban Health Sensing]]> Zhang, Z. In order to achieve this aim, the author utilised an integrated approach, combining a wearable camera, a biosensor wristband and GPS as a package to track the changes in individuals' physiological stress response, continuously, during their exposure to urban features. Although many studies have integrated multiple sensors for health and environment monitoring, the approach is still at the early stages of development. In this thesis, a systematic review to assess the feasibility of integrating multiple personal sensors and proposed workable approaches was first conducted in order to optimise the integration and improve the feasibility of future studies. Based on the knowledge gained from the review, an experimental study, in which a sensor package was employed in different urban contexts (water area, transit area, green area, commercial area, motor traffic area and mixed office and residential area), was designed. Next, machine learning methods were employed to detect urban features from personal imagery and to calculate a change score to assess human physiological stress responses based on galvanic skin response (GSR) and skin temperature from the wristband. Subsequently, a multi-method approach was applied to examine the relationship between urban indicators and human physiological stress responses.
In this thesis, 86 participants were recruited for the experimental study "Urban Health Sensing" in Copenhagen, Denmark, from June 2021 to September 2021. The findings provide important insights into urban flow, greenery, water bodies and sitting facilities and their impact on humans’ physiological stress responses. First, the effect of green and blue urban features (i.e. vegetation and water) on physiological stress response can be positive or negative depending on the context. Second, context, as a "buffer" surrounding people, can reduce the impact of environmental stressors, which is essential in health-promoting urban design. Third, in reality, "inactive" designs (i.e. improper placement of urban elements and urban facilities with low utilisation rate) of urban features can increase people's physiological stress response. Subsequently, the experimental study was repeated in Salzburg, Austria, from November 2021 to December 2021 to test the findings. The findings of this investigation complement those of earlier studies and expand our understanding with real-world examples that emphasise the importance of "active" designs in a healthy environment. Lastly, this thesis summarises "inactive" design typologies, considering the contexts, and suggests using "soft" health-promoting urban design strategies in micro-scale public open spaces to improve the design quality and promote positive health effects.
In conclusion, a better understanding of what constitutes a healthy urban environment was obtained in this thesis. It proved that human physiological stress response changes distinctly during the exposure to an urban flow of people, bicycles, vehicles, water bodies, greenery and sitting facilities in different contexts. This thesis urges urban planners and architects to consider health-oriented urban design to promote health, sustainability and equity, in the future.
Research Tue, 01 Nov 2022 05:36:11 +0100 8e1573e4-b0f1-43ce-b66c-fcca891d5bfc
<![CDATA[Bacteriophages and other Mobile Genetic Elements - Uncovering Novel Mobile Agents via Mobilomics]]> Wacenius Skov Alanin, K. Research Sat, 01 Oct 2022 05:36:11 +0200 3ccd7444-f7c6-486e-925a-a48eb573edca <![CDATA[Chemical signatures of supraglacial microbial communities inhabiting the Greenland Ice Sheet]]> Doting, E. L. Research Thu, 01 Sep 2022 05:36:11 +0200 04dd685f-83f3-4df0-a752-edf1557de2d0 <![CDATA[Circular Bioeconomy]]> Angouria-Tsorochidou, E. Research Tue, 01 Mar 2022 05:36:11 +0100 94d1c180-34c4-4754-b131-ffc698e3bb8b <![CDATA[Transition to a circular bioeconomy in the food system]]> Marini, M. Food policy measures and economic instruments have been implemented to tackle undesirable effects of environmental consequences of the global food system. In addition, advanced economies are trying to implement policy strategies to encourage transitioning food systems from linear modes to circular modes. Implementing appropriate and effective policy frameworks and policy measures can play a crucial role toward creating more efficient, healthy and safe circular food supply chains (FSCs) that are free from the risk of environmental and human exposure to micropollutants such as heavy metals (HM). A healthy and safe circular FSC can be characterized by 1) local production of fresh food respecting local ecosystems and contextual societal needs; 2) minimum food losses or wastages by taking preventing measures and adopting side stream valorization; 3) mitigate health risks of micropollutants such as heavy metals causing soil contamination and human exposure via food intake.
This thesis investigates the existing policy frameworks, tools and regulatory instruments relevant to the European food system and their effectiveness in encouraging a transition toward a healthy and safe circular bioeconomy.
This thesis focus on the following specific societal challenges/issues:
i. The pressing issue of heavy metals in fertilizers, food intake and associated health risks
ii. The phenomenon of expanding urban agriculture and its future prospects
iii. The innovative urban food waste management system DECISIVE ]]>
Research Tue, 01 Feb 2022 05:36:11 +0100 a1712b2d-ca72-4cc1-a7e7-3abb98cc91e3
<![CDATA[Processes of Aerosols and Mercury in the High Arctic]]> Pernov, J. B. This thesis details the research that I, in collaboration with others, have undertaken during my PhD studies to address the knowledge gaps concerning aerosols and mercury in the High Arctic. We have investigated the sources of volatile organic compounds. We found that four sources adequately described the variation of volatile organic compounds including Arctic Haze, Biomass Burning, Marine Cryosphere, and Background. These results have helped us to understand how anthropogenic, natural, and biogenic sources influence the levels and variation of gas-phase atmospheric constituents, as well as provide a baseline for the background levels and variability of these compounds in the Arctic. We have explored the dynamics of gaseous oxidized mercury during the summer and identified the conditions in the free troposphere that are conducive to the oxidation of mercury. This research provides insight into the formation and deposition of mercury in the High Arctic summer (a period where few observations exist). We have examined the changes in different aerosol types and air mass history over the past decade. We found that the occurrence of nucleation mode aerosols and aerosols associated with clean conditions is increasing during the summer and autumn, respectively. These increases in occurrence are connected to the frequency of air masses arriving from areas of exposed ocean during the summer and increases in the amount of precipitation in autumn. We found that changing transport patterns are the predominant cause of air masses experiencing more time over the exposed ocean. We studied the effects of different aerosol types on their potential to directly affect the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. We found that anthropogenic aerosols have the largest effect during the spring while natural aerosols have a considerable effect during the summer, which coupled with the increase in the occurrence of the nucleation mode aerosols, can have consequences for the radiative balance in the future.
While this thesis has made progress in understanding the processes of aerosols and mercury in the High Arctic, further research is required especially measurements of precursor vapors involved in particle formation and growth, the exact chemical identity of gaseous oxidized mercury, and the vertical distribution of these atmospheric constituents.
Research Wed, 01 Dec 2021 05:36:11 +0100 f8831110-4b14-4fef-9f52-28595f0b1133
<![CDATA[Hinterlands and Heartlands in the Green Transition]]> Christensen, L. D.
This thesis addresses these questions from the perspective of staple theory. Although staple scholars often view natural resources as either curses or blessings, the papers of this thesis demonstrate that staple theory allows us to understand resource-dependent regional development in much more nuanced ways. Combining a set-theoretic cross-case analysis of Nordic bioeconomy industries with an in-depth case study of Faroese seaweed cultivation and game theoretic modelling of technology-uptake, the papers also show that regional development is not always reconcilable with environmental sustainability. This thesis therefore explores whether payments for ecosystem services can solve this dilemma, but finds this policy instrument to be no universal solution. However, this thesis argues that staple theory will remain analytically relevant in a bioeconomy that values its natural resources according to the ecosystem principle. The findings of this thesis therefore imply that policy-makers should take the context-sensitive nature of the bioeconomy seriously, and carefully adhere to the principles of deliberative democracy when implementing novel bio-technologies and formulating green transition policy goals. ]]>
Research Tue, 01 Feb 2022 05:36:11 +0100 bec08b6f-620d-4107-9762-24b10c9db874
<![CDATA[Microbial degradation of environmental micropollutants in surface and wastewater]]> Martin, J. D. Manuscripts I and II primarily focus on using classical microbiology techniques tandem with high throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools to isolate and characterize bacterial strains that are capable of degrading a common ingredient in personal care products, Benzophenone-3 (BP3). BP3 is an organic UV filter whose presence in the aquatic environment has been linked to detrimental developmental impacts in aquatic organisms such as coral and fish. Manuscript I presents the first sequenced genome of a BP3 degrading bacteria, Rhodococcus sp. USK10. Manuscript II presents a novel species within the Rhodococcus genus, Rhodococcus benzovorans USK13, which is also capable of degrading BP3. Additionally, through implementation of radiolabeled isotopes, both strains’ ability to completely mineralize BP3 is proven.
Manuscript III primarily focuses on combing Total RNA sequencing with analytical chemistry to better understand community dynamics and function of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). MBBRs are a type of biofilm based biological wastewater treatment technology that have demonstrated efficient removal of micropollutants, specifically pharmaceuticals. Wastewater treatment plant effluent is known to be one of the main sources facilitating the dispersal of micropollutants into the aquatic environment. Studies typically examine the function of an MBBR on a system level, very rarely do they investigate deeper into microbial aspects driving micropollutant removal. This study utilizes total RNA sequencing to investigate community dynamics across all domains of life and their functional response to prolonged exposure to incrementally increasing pharmaceutical concentrations. This study provides a novel perspective on the functional inner workings of wastewater biofilms.
Collectively, the results of this thesis are meant to exemplify the importance of foundational microbiological research in regards to micropollutant biodegradation. Microorganisms are a reservoir of untapped metabolic potential. Through whole genome and microbiome analysis, a limitless amount of useful information is waiting to be discovered. This thesis is intended to be built upon. My hope is that the results presented will lead to the formation new hypotheses and experimental designs allowing for future research to be conducted facilitating a more thorough understanding of microbial degradation of environmental micropollutants.
Research Sun, 01 Aug 2021 05:36:11 +0200 b7d84ad5-7836-415e-b048-b15dd05ecb78
<![CDATA[Combining Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation for Improved Groundwater Remediation of the Micropollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide]]> Hylling, O. Research Wed, 01 Sep 2021 05:36:11 +0200 b2aeea05-968f-453c-95cd-40a4d7703370 <![CDATA[Integrated Environmental-Economic Modelling for Policy Support]]> Filippelli, R.
The thesis includes three papers. In the first paper, the goal is to assess the impact of introducing mussel cultivation in the mix of nitrogen reduction measures in three Danish catchments that are subject to reduction targets for nitrogen loads. Additionally, the study explores the implications of a possible reduction in the productivity of mussel farms due to water quality improvements and consequent decrease in food availability. The paper contributes to the current literature by examining the effects of incorporating the production of mussel feed to the nitrogen reduction effort; by addressing the impact of long-term reduction in mussel productivity; and by analyzing how the price of mussel-based animal feed affects the cost-effectiveness of nitrogen abatement by mussel farming relative to land-based measures.

In the second paper, the aim is to identify cost-efficient allocations of land-based and marine measures and to discuss the impact of introducing mussel farming on the distribution of different types of land measures (set-aside, agricultural practices and wetlands as sinks). Different scenarios are setup to explore the implications of varying the baseline load estimates connected to the national N load targets and to improve our understanding of the implications of introducing mussel farming on the total cost to reach the target reductions and the spatial distribution of land-based measures.

The third paper simulates a water quality trading market in a catchment located in northern Denmark. It includes mussel farmers in the trading market and analyzes scenarios of decreasing levels of participation. By integrating agricultural farmers and mussel farmers, it seeks to assess the effects of such integration on a water quality trading market and on the costs of mitigating non-point source pollution using the smart market approach. Additionally, by setting-up scenarios of decreasing levels of participation, it aims to estimate the effects of an important concern regarding water quality trading markets – low participation. Both contributions offer novel additions to the literature and have important policy implications for the design of instruments to improve environmental conditions in coastal and marine areas.

The studies presented in this thesis show the potential of integrating land and marine based farmers in one policy framework to reduce nitrogen load to coastal and marine areas. Respecting the specificity of each catchment and its water body, such integration should be considered when designing instruments to improve environmental conditions in coastal and marine waters. In light of the pressing need to meet water quality targets, the potential contribution of mussel farming may increase the level of policy support for this measure.

Although developing robust models to regulate agricultural emissions remains a challenge, the research presented in this thesis contributes to bridging the gap between integrated models developed for research and simple assessment frameworks developed for use by agencies to support the regulation of agricultural emissions.
Research Wed, 01 Jun 2022 05:36:11 +0200 4e61ed75-de31-4136-9eca-c724fb662b0d
<![CDATA[Removal, degradation, and transformation of micropollutants in wastewater treatment using membrane technologies]]> Li, R. Research Wed, 01 Sep 2021 05:36:11 +0200 f33a0dc1-e55e-4474-a9db-2c36724cdebd <![CDATA[Spatial Modeling of Urban Growth and its Influence on Air Pollution: Evaluation of Vertical versus Horizontal Growth of Quito, Ecuador]]> Valencia Alvear, V. H.
This study estimates the urban form and spatial distribution of air pollution emissions for each scenario and the reference year 2017. The LUCIA model is satisfactorily applied to model the 2018 urban form based on data from 2000 – 2016 and to model the 2040 sprawl scenario. The UBM model is acceptably and extensively evaluated to estimate CO, NO2, NOx, O3, and PM2.5 concentrations. Model values are compared with observations from monitoring stations for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2015, and 2017.

This study finds that the UBM model can operate with meteorological data retrieved from a single reference station, simplifying input data requirements. A GIS-based model is developed to distribute aggregated emissions spatially. The GIS-based model is evaluated by applying the estimated emission maps in UBM and comparing the estimated concentrations with observations. The assessment proves that the modeling results can be applied to air quality studies.

This study applies two global emission pathways from the air quality European project ECLIPSE: Current legislation emissions (CLE) and Maximum technical feasible reductions (MTFR). Due to decreased emissions, all scenarios for 2040 result in lower air pollution concentrations than in 2017, while the MTFR pathway results in lower concentrations than the CLE pathway.

Contrary to expected, the overall annual concentrations for the two scenarios show relatively small differences. For CO and PM2.5, the annual concentration differences are minimal even for significant emission differences, probably due to the high regional contribution. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of concentration (500 m resolution) shows remarkable differences between the two urban growth scenarios. The sprawl scenario results in a larger area with higher CO, NO2, NOx, and PM2.5 concentrations, while the densification scenario results in a larger area with higher concentrations for O3. However, due to population density changes, in the densification scenario, more people are exposed to higher levels of CO, O3, and PM2.5. In contrast, in the sprawl scenario, more people are exposed to higher concentrations of NO2 and NOx.

The two scenarios result in concentrations of CO and O3 lower than the local regulation limits. NO2 exceeds limit values in a small part of the city when applying CLE emissions. On the contrary, PM2.5 exceeds the air quality limit in a larger part for the two scenarios and both emission pathways.

For both scenarios, the highest concentrations of all pollutants, except ozone, occur in and around the city center. Within the sprawl scenario, the expansion area shows some of the lowest population densities and pollution concentrations (except ozone).

This study explores the effects of limiting the horizontal expansion and developing a denser city on the air pollution concentrations. This change in the urban structure will result in significant differences between urban areas. For some areas and pollutants, this change will result in more people being exposed to higher concentrations. However, determining if these higher concentrations represent a risk to human health requires further research. In that sense, the study presented in this document provides and confirms the applicability of some modeling tools to conduct air quality studies in Quito. However, neither these models nor the input data are exclusive to Quito and could therefore be applied to other cities and regions. ]]>
Research Sat, 01 May 2021 05:36:11 +0200 f7ebb1e9-8840-4e61-ac32-563c8a2e0a1f
<![CDATA[Removal, Degradation, Transformation of Organic Micropollutants in Advanced Wastewater Treatment]]> Kharel, S. Research Fri, 01 Jan 2021 05:36:11 +0100 4ff5b028-0f58-4b05-b353-3e9734579e4c <![CDATA[ValueSea — Valuing Ecosystem Services and Services to Ecosystems from Seaweed Cultivation and Harvest]]> Zhang, X. Research Tue, 01 Jun 2021 05:36:11 +0200 0ce171cf-aae5-4784-894d-3ef23d78ff57 <![CDATA[Removal, Degradation, Transformation of Organic Micropollutants in Biofilm Reactors]]> Svendsen, S. B. Research Fri, 01 Jan 2021 05:36:11 +0100 7af0e39f-9387-4226-aa03-9a79341fe33f <![CDATA[The hidden value of food waste: A bridge to sustainable development in the circular economy]]> Teigiserova, D. Research Fri, 01 Jan 2021 05:36:11 +0100 b38f40f1-3b05-4336-9f0f-68028bda950c <![CDATA[Assessing Denmark’s global food trade-related environmental impacts]]> Osei-Owusu, A. K. This PhD project applies two consumption-based (CB) environmental accounting methods, namely the environmentally extended multi-regional input-output analysis and biophysical model of agricultural trade to evaluate Denmark’s national and subnational food-related CB accounts (or footprints) for GHG emissions (i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)), and cropland, grassland and blue water use from 1995 to 2014. Secondly, the thesis quantifies the potential for Denmark to reduce its global food-related GHG emissions and resource consumption based on scenarios that include household dietary shifts towards plant-based foods and food waste prevention as well as improvements in livestock feed use efficiencies.
From 2000 to 2013, Denmark’s per capita consumption of meat and dairy decreased from 668 kg/yr to 583 kg/yr while its per capita consumption of food crops increased from 687 kg/yr to 744 kg/yr. We find that the GHG emissions, cropland and grassland use associated Denmark’s food consumption declined by 30% (4.45 Mt CO2e) and 16% (355 kha), 27% (62 kha) respectively between 1995 and 2014. In the same period, the blue water use related to Danish food consumption was fairly stable, increasing by a negligible 0.36% (1 Mm3). From 1995 to 2014, the GHG emissions, croplands and grasslands displaced to the rest of the world by Danish consumption of imported foods decreased by only 3% (0.17 Mt CO2e), 5% (50 kha) and 1% (2 kha) respectively. In contrast, the blue water embodied in Denmark’s food imports increased by 4% (12 Mm^3). However, the share of displaced impacts to regions overseas by Danish food consumption in Denmark’s total CB impacts increased for GHG emissions (37% to 51%), land (45% to 51%) and blue water use (81% to 84%). Between 1995 and 2014, the environmental pressures displaced to Denmark by food consumption abroad food increased for GHG emissions (+0.72 Mt CO2e), land use (+245 kha) and water use (+18 Mm3). The global feed cropland footprint for livestock products consumed in Denmark decreased by 24% (271 kha) from 2000 to 2013, with the most significant reductions for pork (-41% or 156 kha), beef (-19% or 35 kha) and milk (-16% or 77 kha). At subnational level, the Capital region of Denmark accounted for 41% (28.26 Mt CO2e) and 31% (27.19 Mt CO2e) of Denmark national production-and-consumption based GHG emissions. Also, Denmark’s biggest cities (i.e. Copenhagen, Aarhus, Aalborg and Odense) accounted for 21% (18.21 Mt CO2e) and 22% (2.51Mt CO2e) of Denmark’s global total and food-related GHG emissions respectively in 2011.
In summary, the findings of the project suggest that reasonable to optimal reductions in household consumption of meat and dairy in Denmark could potentially reduce the global environmental pressures associated with Danish food consumption. With regards to local climate policies in Denmark, the Capital region of Denmark, as well as Denmark’s richest and most populous municipalities presents great opportunities for significantly lowering Denmark’s GHG emissions. To mitigate Denmark’s food trade environmental impacts, we recommend, (i) concerted efforts by principal public and private stakeholders in the Danish food industry to transfer Danish expertise, and innovative food technologies to the countries of origin for its most pollution-and-resource intensive food imports, (ii) a redesign of Denmark’s food system to increase local food supply self-sufficiency in a sustainable manner (iii) dietary shifts towards less or no meat and dairy products abroad. We hope that the finding of this project will contribute to climate and environmental policymaking and changes in consumer dietary choices in Denmark necessary for meeting the climate neutrality goal set for 2050.
Research Mon, 01 Feb 2021 05:36:11 +0100 398b3d35-737f-47c1-947e-105c3c967fde
<![CDATA[Antifouling biocides]]> Koning, J. T. Research Fri, 01 Jan 2021 05:36:11 +0100 8f2cedd5-5657-43be-96f1-6f9f1a9e9532 <![CDATA[Changing urban form]]> Chen, T. K.
In the studies of urban sustainability, time-series data are essential for scientists and planners seeking evidence-based insights and sustainable solutions. Although scientists have measured environmental factors, such as air, rainfall, and temperature with multiple time steps and high spatial resolution, the same has not been done for three-dimensional urban form that considers building height and density. One-time urban form data rests on an assumption of the built environment as static. However, the urban densification occurs at a variety of speeds and dimensions around the world, which points to the need for more spatiotemporal details.

This thesis contributes to improved assessments of changing urban form by answering: (1) Why is long term monitoring of the three-dimensional built environment challenging? (2) How to overcome those challenges? (3) What are the implications of changing urban forms for mental well-being? The dissertation includes one review and five research articles (three written as first-author, and two written as co-author) that cover methodologies and applications.

Article 1 systematically reviews urban remote sensing studies and explains why they predominately focus dichotomous urban/non-urban classification by pointing out a spatiotemporal dilemma in this field – high-resolution imagery, able to detect nuanced urban attributes, has a relatively short temporal span. In contrast, older image-series can detect long-term changes, but has a lower spatial resolution. The article concludes by proposing three pathways to overcome the dilemma: data fusion, artificial intelligence, and selection of meaningful feature scales.

Article 2 addresses the challenge of using Landsat data for monitoring three-dimensional urban densification. Particularly, Landsat’s 30m image resolution makes it difficult to capture 3D structures because the pixel is larger than many urban objects. The study proposes a semantic segmentation framework that uses multi-scale spatial features and shows how this framework improves urban form mapping compared to a simple fully convolutional network (FCN) and random forest (RF) in terms of accuracy as well as spatial and temporal transferability. Urban form time-series data reveal that Danish provincial cities have been densifying horizontally, while the capital suburbs have been growing vertically since the late 1980s.

Article 3 tackles another challenge in urban mapping, namely that of distinguishing between landslides and urbanised areas, because human constructions and landslides are spectrally similar. The study demonstrates a multi-sensor methodology combining nighttime light imagery with multi-seasonal Landsat imagery, and shows how this approach can improve landslide mapping significantly.

Article 4 applies the results from Article 2 to link dynamic urban form patterns to two million Danish people’s addresses, relocation and mental health records to explore associations between urban form and mental well-being. The study shows that mood and neurotic disorders are associated with sprawling low-rise areas and also with transitional experiences associated with moving to or the development of new dense, low areas. In contrast, sparse high-rise areas are associated with lower relative risk of mental problems, implying a positive effect of the intertwined intense built environment and green spaces. These results challenge the general concept that either urban environments or natural environments are uniformly beneficial for mental well-being.

The last two papers are co-authored, and tackle the same issue of harmonised land-cover monitoring. Article 5 provides a harmonised approach to monitor urban green spaces in Denmark using a seasonal filter, three-year rolling window, and between-sensor (Landsat) calibration. Further, Article 6 advances the harmonised land cover monitoring by proposing a deep-learning approach to make images cloud-free.

Taken together, this thesis sheds light on three-dimensional urban form monitoring by proposing methods that provide spatially explicit maps with harmonised time series. The results of horizontal and vertical urban density have been applied to connect people's individual mobility and their mental health, ending with an argument against the simplistic urban-rural gradient of mental well-being. Advances in the spatiotemporal details of urban form are promising to generate significant new insights for the well-being of people.]]>
Research Wed, 01 Jan 2020 05:36:11 +0100 da752c95-c9f9-4e58-bfbe-eb95ce38211a
<![CDATA[Photochemical fate of antifouling biocides in aquatic environments]]> Cai, Y. Research Wed, 01 Jan 2020 05:36:11 +0100 6f67532b-0351-4e3f-9211-4b7b2f27d19c <![CDATA[Therapeutic phages]]> Olsen, N. S. Research Wed, 01 Jan 2020 05:36:11 +0100 ee785cfc-e7d6-4593-8663-3cd459d51b24 <![CDATA[Co-metabolic removal of organic micropollutants in moving bed biofilm reactors]]> Liang, C. Research Wed, 01 Jan 2020 05:36:11 +0100 b25adaf5-fe5c-4674-87c0-dfad4b52d144 <![CDATA[Removal of micropollutants in biofilters during treatment of combined sewer overflow, wastewater effluent and leachate]]> Nord, N. B. Research Thu, 11 Jun 2020 05:36:11 +0200 af7a03ca-bcfe-4dfb-ba7b-f24a9e8ccc02 <![CDATA[Deploying a Single Strand of Life to Unravel the Environmental Microbiomes in Action]]> Anwar, M. Z.
Overall six manuscripts (published, under-review and in preparation) and a computational capsule are enclosed in this thesis. Conceptually, this section is divided into three areas, i) Bioinformatics method development ii) Analysis of infidelity of Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and formulation of its potential impact on metatranscriptomes and iii) Case-studies of Bioinformatics method developed.

Manuscript I focuses on benchmarking two widely used alternatives of metatranscriptomic analysis; "assembly-based" and "assembly-free". This manuscript investigates these two contrasting approaches by analyzing a simulated dataset and two real-world metatranscriptomes from different environments. It also signifies how choice of approach has significant impact on the interpretation and understanding of the transcriptional changes in the respective environment. Furthermore, based on the benchmarking, this manuscript presents a thorough road map and a standardized worklfow -- Comparative Metatranscriptomics Workflow (CoMW) -- that helps in making informed decisions when analyzing complex metatranscriptomes. Manuscript II is a peer-reviewed computational capsule that presents a workflow in an open, modular and reproducible structure. Manuscript II strengthens the implementation structure by making the workflow available as a platform independent, easy to install (docker, anaconda container) gold standard workflow. It has the capacity of being structurally modified as per future expected improvements in sequencing technologies.

Manuscript III nudges on a potential caveat of metatranscriptomics by investigating the infidelity of Reverse Transcriptase (RT) enzyme. It provides an overview of types of errors, and their potential association to GC-content. Manuscript III highlights these errors and their potential implications in metatranscriptomes by using deep sequencing of DNA and cDNA of two strains Salmonella enterica susbsp. enterica serovar Enteriditis PT1 and Sphingobium herbicidovorans MH. Manuscript IV presents a first circular and complete genome of Salmonella enterica susbsp. enterica serovar Enteriditis PT1 which was assembled using a hybrid Illumina + Oxford Nanopore sequencing approach. This closed circular genome was used in Manuscript III to evaluate the assembly and errors of the RT enzyme.

Manuscript V, VI and VII are three case-studies of Comparative Metatranscriptomics Workflow (CoMW). These three independent studies were designed to study the transcriptional response of microbial communities in response to external stimuli using CoMW. Manuscript V presents a study designed to investigate the transcriptional response during warming from - 10 °C to 2 °C and subsequent cooling from 2 °C to - 10 °C of an Arctic tundra active layer soil from Svalbard, Norway. Manuscript VI presents a study of compositional and transcriptional effects on microbial communities in Danish forest and agricultural soils in response to wood ash amendment. Manuscript VII demonstrate the heat shock response of the active microbial communities from perennial cave ice. Data from manuscripts V and VI were also analyzed by the alternative "assembly-free" approach to highlight the impact of choice on interpretation, in Manuscript I.]]>
Research Tue, 01 Oct 2019 05:36:11 +0200 1ac53d4e-adfd-4a25-a93d-c32cb0c97108
<![CDATA[Energy Forest Management and Policy Instruments for Climate Change Mitigation in China]]> Zhang, J. ]]> Research Wed, 27 Nov 2019 05:36:11 +0100 91c7182a-96eb-4f80-9836-667fb8837caa <![CDATA[Exploring the Molecular Basis of Microbial Wine-Terroir]]> Gobbi, A.
During this 3-years long microbiological journey, we extended the concept of the microbial terroir on a global scale, sequencing soil-DNA from a hundred of vineyards worldwide in four continents. This biogeographical correlation exists at different scales; between different wine-regions in the same country and between fields within the same region. We revealed unique biomarkers in remote volcanic vineyards in Azores and temperature-driven microbial gradients from Bizkaia to Ribera Del Duero, passing from La Rioja, in Spain. We discriminated the microbial communities between closely related vineyards in Pfalz, Germany, an area famous for the production of Riesling. Further, we characterized the microbiota of Danish vineyards, young-winemaker country, within the regions of Zealand and Funen.

Throughout several fruitful industrial and academic collaborations, we improved the existing DNA extraction methods for analysing the microbes in deep-soil cores taken within vineyards, by testing DNA-enhancer such as G2. Hence, with this new protocol, we characterize the vertical stratification of the microbial community associated with different types of soil in three countries (Spain, Australia and Denmark). In another collaborative work, we characterize the inner-mycobiome of grapevine trunks, looking at the impacts of plant-fungal-disease such as Esca and different fungicide treatments. At the same time, we also characterize the microbial community resident on the phyllosphere and its dependence on the grape cultivar.

Furthermore, by combining NGS and qPCR in a commercial vineyard of Western Cape, South Africa, we measured the dynamics of the leaves’ microbiota during the complete growing season. Therefore, we investigated the impact of two different fungicide treatments: a traditional copper spray compared with the application of Lactobacillus plantarum MW-1 as a biocontrol agent.

All of these contributions to the existing scientific literature will be valuable for microbial ecologist interested in the agricultural part of the winemaking industry. This information will also help the winemakers, raising awareness on biodiversity and the importance it can have within the modern wine industry.
Research Wed, 01 May 2019 05:36:11 +0200 b69cb4b5-d7f7-4cb9-9c18-47b92d474828
<![CDATA[Phages in the food production]]> Carstens, A. B. Research Wed, 01 May 2019 05:36:11 +0200 c68436f2-11a9-4772-9592-b68de6ec243b <![CDATA[Climate relevant properties of Arctic aerosols at the Villum Research Station]]> Lange, R. Research Tue, 01 Jan 2019 05:36:11 +0100 4b1446da-2782-44d6-a50f-c0c59000b6a0 <![CDATA[Control of Bacteria for Sustainable Viticulture and Vinification Practices]]> Kyrkou, I. Research Fri, 01 Feb 2019 05:36:11 +0100 b2795e67-3260-4fe8-9549-20d4161e9b3f <![CDATA[The Prospects for Large-Scale Renewables in Sub-Saharan Africa]]> Aly, A. Research Tue, 01 Jan 2019 05:36:11 +0100 a8fb6f4f-1feb-4739-b872-123af0108282 <![CDATA[Air quality and noise exposure modelling system]]> Khan, J. Research Tue, 01 Jan 2019 05:36:11 +0100 f3a1a047-a141-43cc-ad0b-ade7c82f38c4 <![CDATA[Behavioral Advances in Environmental Economics]]> Zemo, K. H. Research Mon, 01 Jan 2018 05:36:11 +0100 aa660b6b-47ae-4079-8f30-ba774a9a27ae <![CDATA[Studies on lowering pharmaceuticals emissions to the environment]]> El-taliawy, H. Research Mon, 01 Jan 2018 05:36:11 +0100 6f80c5a1-c5e6-4387-8622-18d7e061848f <![CDATA[Unraveling the Molecular Mysteries of Sphingomonads]]> Nielsen, T. K. Research Sun, 01 Jan 2017 05:36:11 +0100 13d9e9f8-6fea-4a2a-8d94-1d5285b3a0ac <![CDATA[Arctic Aerosols and Sources]]> Nielsen, I. E. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state-of-the-art Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, which was deployed both in the laboratory and in the field. Also auxiliary instruments have been applied, including Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer and a seven-wavelength aethalometer. Most of the Arctic data presented in this dissertation was collected at the Villum Research Station, Station Nord in North Greenland.
Laboratory studies of a conventional wood stove showed that particle emissions were strongly dependent on the intensity of burn rate. The burning cycle was divided into three phases, where the first phase, the fuel addition, resulted in short-lived but high emissions of levoglucosan and organic aerosols. The second phase, the intermediate phase, was dominated by black carbon and only to a minor extent organic aerosols and levoglucosan. The final burn out phase was generally represented by low concentrations of all species and overall the full cycle was dominated by black carbon. While staying within a realistic and plausible range, different degrees of burn rate showed that aerosol emissions increased with the intensity of burn rate, where especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons showed a large increase. Levoglucosan is a commonly used tracer for wood combustion and this study showed, as expected, a correlation between the tracer and particulate matter during normal burn rate. However, with an increase in combustion intensity the same correlation was not valid. Therefore, the use of levoglucosan as a sole marker compound for determining the organic aerosol contribution from wood combustion will not be sufficient.
Arctic aerosols were investigated during several time periods with different instruments and time resolutions. Two years of weekly measurements of black carbon and sulfate at the Villum Research Station showed elevated concentrations during winter and spring explained by expansion of the polar dome enabling long-range transport of aerosols from source regions outside the Arctic. This phenomenon is better known as the Arctic haze. Contrary, the summer and fall concentrations were lower due to the retreat of the polar dome. These seasonal patterns were compared with five other Arctic stations, which all showed the same characteristics of Arctic haze. Black carbon and sulfate were found to be internally mixed and it was thus concluded that the two species undergo comparable transport patterns in the Arctic. The internal mixing of black carbon and sulfate can enhance the absorption of black carbon and lead to further warming. In addition, results suggested that throughout the Arctic the source regions, contributing to the two species, were similar. The observed concentrations were compared with different models and generally models had improved compared to previous studies and succeeded in reproducing the seasonal patterns.
The aerosol composition during Arctic haze was investigated with a higher time resolution during a field campaign at the Villum Research Station, showing a highly acidic environment where sulfate was the dominant species. The aerosol concentration decreased during spring as the Arctic haze leveled off. A source apportionment analysis showed that three factors were contributing to organic aerosols. A hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol factor was assigned to fossil fuel combustion and a second factor, less oxygenated organic aerosol, was allocated as secondary organic aerosols. The second factor began to decrease from the end of March and was replaced by the third factor, which was a more oxygenated organic aerosol factor. It could therefore be concluded, that secondary organic aerosols were dominating during the Arctic spring and that the major part of the sub-micrometer aerosol mass was internally mixed and long-range transported.
This PhD has helped to increase our current knowledge concerning Arctic aerosols and their sources, which is an important step towards improving the overall understanding of aerosols’ effect on the climate.
Research Mon, 13 Feb 2017 05:36:11 +0100 503b4347-c91b-407f-b90c-8da06f73cc29
<![CDATA[Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark]]> Lansø, A. S. 2 affects the entire globe and will lead to higher surface temperatures. Although anthropogenic CO2is emitted straight into the atmosphere, it does not all contribute to the existing atmospheric CO2 reservoir. Approximately 29% is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand the processes controlling the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2.

This PhD dissertation attempts to increase our understanding of the importance of accounting for high spatiotemporal variability in estimates of COexchanges between the atmosphere and the surface. For this purpose, a mesoscale modelling system is constructed, centred around Denmark, based on an atmospheric transport model. In this study, the main areas of focus have been on improving the spatial surface representation, for both land and sea, and investigating the influence of the temporal resolution on the air–sea CO2 exchange.

Until the present study, no area-specific representation had been developed for the surface water pCOof the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters. A surface water monthly climatology was implemented in the mesoscale modelling framework, and further improved with a near coastal climatology for the Danish inner waters. In the modelling framework, the heterogeneous land surfaces of Denmark were assessed by means of a detailed land surface classifications map and the inclusion of a high temporal and spatial resolution biosphere model. Available measurements of surface water pCO2, from stationary sites within the Baltic Sea, were used to construct a realistic set of monthly diurnal cycles of surface water pCO2 within the study region, in order to include short-term variability in surface water pCO2 in the model setup.

The air-sea CO2 exchange, for the coastal area of the Baltic Sea and the Danish inner waters, was consistently examined by means of the constructed mesoscale modelling framework. From a six year (2005-2010) simulation, the average annual flux for the study region was found to be a small sink of atmospheric CO2. The influence of short-term variability in atmospheric CO2 was found to have a significant impact on the annual air–sea CO2 exchange. A simulation with constant monthly fields of atmospheric CO2, reduced the winter release of CO2 for the six year period, resulting in an increase of 67% in the average annual uptake by the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters.

The inclusion of short-term variations in surface water pCO2 increased the simulated release of COto the atmosphere. For the two different surface fields of pCO2tested during different simulations in the modelling framework, the annual air–sea CO2 exchange for 2011 showed an increase in one case, while in the other, when short-term variability in surface water pCOwas included, the annual uptake changed to an annual release of atmospheric CO2. Besides showing the impact of short-term variability in surface water pCO2, these simulations also showed that the choice of surface water pCO2 fields had a notable impact on the annual air–sea CO2exchange. Similarly, this was also evident for the near coastal climatology for the Danish inner waters: these areas resolve to release CO2 annually to the atmosphere when the near-coastal climatology is included, while act as annual sinks if not.

The Danish terrestrial biosphere was divided into seven land use classes, covering forest type, agricultural usage and grasslands. The land use class, found to be the most influential on the monthly surface exchanges was grassland, while winter crops were most influential on an annual basis. A westward gradient in numerical size of surface exchange was found across Denmark, and was reflected in the short-term variability in the atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the local land–sea signal was difficult to detect at the Risø tall tower site. A first estimate of the Danish CO2 budget was made for year 2011. The Danish biosphere and ocean were found to take up an amount of CO2 that nearly corresponds to all the CO2 emitted by fossil fuel use in Denmark. However, the biospheric uptake might have been overestimated.

The spatiotemporal resolution on land and sea has been greatly improved for the focus area during this study. The calculations of the annual air–sea CO2 exchange showed a sensitivity to short-term variability in the partial pressure of CO2. The air–sea exchange is also dependent on surface maps of pCO2, and with the improvements surface representation made in this PhD, the Baltic Sea is found to be a small sink, while near-coastal Danish inner waters are a net annual source of CO2 ot the atmosphere. It is evident that the developed modelling systems is capable of simulating the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of CO2 and, compared to the tall tower measurements of CO2, a good level of consistency was found. The variability of the simulated atmospheric CO2 across Denmark was, in particular, affected by the Danish terrestrial surface exchanges and its temporal variability.
This study urges all future modelling studies of air–sea CO2 to include short-term variability in pCO2. To capture the full heterogeneity of the surface exchanges including land-sea, fjord or lake signal, this study recommend high spatial resolution of both model and input parameters for studies investigating such complexities. ]]>
Research Wed, 27 Jul 2016 05:36:11 +0200 b1cce496-41e7-4700-8c0b-5f9961231912
<![CDATA[Seaweed utilization for integrated bioenergy and fish feed production]]> Seghetta, M. Creation of closed-loop production processes aiming at generating zero-waste is the foundation for a circular economy. Offshore seaweed cultivation can play a key role to transform linear production systems into biobased circular flows. Seaweed can absorb manmade emissions to water, while producing valuable compounds that can re-enter the economic system. In the thesis, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyze the environmental performance of different seaweed exploitation strategies. The main objectives are to identify and quantify the engineered ecosystems services delivered by circular management strategies and propose solutions to improve their environmental performance.
Improvement of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies enables the identification and quantification of regulating services, i.e. eutrophication mitigation in aquatic systems. The methods are based on cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture fertilization to the aquatic environment (paper I). A LCIA method has been developed to
include both nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine eutrophication, thus providing a suitable instrument to assess suitability of seaweed cultivation in coastal areas. In a simple scenario, where seaweed is used as fertilizer, an eutrophication mitigation service of -25 kg N eq. and -3 kg P eq. per Mg seaweed dry weight is quantified.
A dynamic model of biogenic carbon has been created to describe the effect of uptake and harvest of CO 2
(HCO3−) by seaweed cultivation and processing system. The model quantifies the ability of the bio-economic value chain to create climate change mitigation (paper II). Specifically, LCA has been used to quantify the climate change mitigation service of three alternative seaweed exploitation strategies: use as feedstock for a biorefinery producing ethanol, protein-rich fish feed ingredient and biofertilizer; use in a biogas plant for production of energy and fertilizer; use as feedstock for a microalgae-based protein production (paper III and IV). All the production systems are carbon negative, meaning that they are
delivering climate mitigation. The service quantification varies between a minimum of -14 kg CO 2 eq. per ha of seawater cultivated, achieved when seaweed were used for combined production of ethanol, fish feed and fertilizer, and a maximum of -662 kg CO 2 eq./ha, obtained for biogas production. Productivity, i.e. harvested biomass per hectare, is an important element in relation to a competitive cultivation and processing of seaweed compared to other energies and protein production technologies.
Optimization of cultivation design could reduce externalities generated by the materials use. Optimization of storage methods, e.g. drying, is necessary to reduce the total energy consumption.
Improvement of the environmental and economical sustainability of seaweed production and biorefining may be obtained by optimized productivity. The latter can be achieved through selective breeding of species, identification of ideal cultivation sites according to environmental parameters and harvest time
designed for maximum output products. ]]>
Research Fri, 01 Jan 2016 05:36:11 +0100 13f0c932-79b5-47cd-bbe6-f9a64c6521ec
<![CDATA[The impact of protists diversity and their interaction with bacteria on soil ecosystem services]]> Santos, S. Research Fri, 01 Jan 2016 05:36:11 +0100 174cfc15-e6b0-4d3e-9bec-d23da3e13557 <![CDATA[Biofilm systems for the removal of micro-pollutants from wastewater]]> Escola, M. cases, those were higher than the ones achieved in aerobic reactors. The results also indicated that methanol could lead to a more efficient biofilm than ethanol towards pharmaceuticals removal. Finally, some work was made on analytical method development. The separation, isolation and identification of enantiomers of the fungicide imazalil were achieved, allowing further studies on enantioselective toxicity and degradation. Testing the performance of different biofilm reactors for the removal of micro-pollutants provided a first insight on the efficiency of biofilms for micro-pollutants removal in different situations. Further investigations should keep focusing in understanding the parameters controlling micro-pollutants removal. At the same time, analytical
tools should be used to study the formation of degradation products as well as
enantioselective degradation processes.]]>
Research Fri, 01 Jan 2016 05:36:11 +0100 62ea8f90-7b60-4e9a-85bf-222aa84a59ec
<![CDATA[Land economic aspects of water quality improvements]]> Konrad, M. T. H. Research Fri, 18 Sep 2015 05:36:11 +0200 4a6e8a4b-f0af-4aaa-8871-4018461bdf19 <![CDATA[The scope of economic incentives for sustainable soil management]]> Jørgensen, S. L. Det overordnede formål med denne afhandling er hvordan man kan skabe incitament for bærerdygtig dyrkning af jorden. Analyserne er baseret på en stor spørgeskemaundersøgelse, hvor valg eksperimenter bruges til at kortlægge landmændenes præferencer. Afhandlingen består af 4 artikler, alle med det overordnede tema bærerdygtig dyrkning af jord. For landmænd vil jordkvaliteten være endnu mere vigtig i fremtiden da ændringer i klimaet vil øge antallet af ekstreme vejr begivenheder. Bærerdygtig jord vil også øge bindingen af organisk karbon i jorden, og er dermed et vigtigt værktøj til at nå målsætningerne for karbon reduktion.
Artikel 1 analyserer muligheden for at betale landmanden for at dyrke jorden bærerdygtigt. Dvs. man skaber et marked for bærerdygtig dyrket jord. Analysen er baseret på et valgeksperiment blandt danske landmænd, og analysere landmændenes præferencer ved en kontrakt. Der tages desuden højde for at udover at være et offentlig gode, vil bærerdygtig jord også øge værdien af jorden i produktions øjemed, da det både vil øge og give mere stabil produktion. Valgeksperiment data er analyseret i en conditional logit model, en latent class model og en mixed logit model. Hvor conditional logit antager uafhængige og identisk fordelte fejlled, løsner latent class og mixed logit denne betingelse og tager højde for heterogenitet. Analysen viser at landmænd foretrækker kontrakter med høj fleksibilitet. Resultaterne angiver også at landmændene anerkender den positive effekt ved bærerdygtig dyrkning.
Artikel 2 analyserer mulighederne for at benytte en kombination a traditionel markeds forsikring og naturlig forsikring til at øge jordens bærerdygtighed. Reduceret jordbearbejdning og nedmuldning af halm bruges som naturlig forsikrings redskaber. Begge metoder vil øge jordens kvalitet og reducere risikoen for oversvømmelse ved skybrud. Analysen er baseret på et valgeksperiment og analyseret i en conditional logit og latent class model. Som i artikel 1 foretrækker landmænd kontrakt attributter med høj fleksibilitet. Analysen indikerer også at selvom der er en afvejning mellem markeds og naturlig forsikring, er der stadig en efterspørgelse på en sådan forsikring blandt danske landmænd. Og hvis man bruger et naturlig forsikrings redskab som f.eks. nedmuldning, der kræver mindre af landmanden og samtidig har mindre usikkerhed, så har landmanden intet imod naturlig forsikring betingelsen i forsikringskontrakten.
Artikel 3 analyserer hvilke implikationer ved tab af jordkvalitet danske landmænd allerede har oplevet, samt deres forventninger til hvorledes fremtidige klima ændringer vil påvirke dem og deres produktion. Artiklen analyserer hvad landmændene allrede gør for at tilpasse sig det mere ekstreme vejr og hvad de gør for at mindske deres effekt på klimaet. Analysen er baseret på svar fra spørgeskema undersøgelsen og data analyseres dels i statistiske analyser dels i en probit model. Resultaterne indikerer at danske landmænd er velinformeret om klima ændringer og fremtidige usikkerhed. Flertallet har allerede tilpasset sig ændringerne og forbereder sig på mere ekstremt vejr. Det ser dog ud til at der er et paradoks i det landmændene ikke kombinerer deres egne oplevelser med f.eks. skybrud med klima ændringer.
Artikel 4 analyserer omkostningseffektiviteten ved at bruge en PES aftale som redskab til at minimere karbon. Artiklen beregner mulighed for karbon ophobning i jorden i Danmark ved at bruge IPCCs retningslinjer i en rummelig analyse. Resultaterne fra artikel 1 bruges til at beregne den marginale omkostning for at reducerer karbon ved reduceret jordbearbejdning. Afhængigt af hvilken effekt man antager at reduceret jordbearbejdning har på karbon bindingen i jord, vil reduceret jordbearbejdning enten være yderst omkostningseffektivt eller, hvis man tager højde for nye forskningsresultater der indikerer at reduceret jordbearbejdning har lille eller ingen effekt på karbon binding, vil det på ingen både være omkostningseffektivt.
Danske landmænd er overordnet set velinformeret omkring de fremtidige udfordringer grundet ekstremt vejr og klima ændringer. De ved også at en god jordkvalitet er vigtig, de foretrækker dog så stor frihed som mulig i deres forvaltning af jorden og høj fleksibilitet i kontrakter. Det er vigtigt at tage højde for disse faktorer for at opnå målsætningen om bærerdygtigt jordbrug.
Research Thu, 01 Jan 2015 05:36:11 +0100 ef333e40-8643-4b62-8d99-3a77c3f50098
<![CDATA[Biogenic Manganese Oxides in Advanced Wastewater Treatment]]> Furgal, K. M. Research Thu, 01 Oct 2015 05:36:11 +0200 350e207b-b212-44eb-9ce9-25c6a26a3a0a <![CDATA[Mapping and Modelling Ecosystem Services to Explore Characteristics of Socio-Ecological Systems]]> Turner, K. G. Research Thu, 01 Jan 2015 05:36:11 +0100 13fd201c-6dd9-4ea7-9ab9-cca767d4f5cc